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Marcha

In Brazil exist different types of marches ("marchas" or "marchinhas"): carnival marches, regional or traditional marches, etc. The first "marcha" was the composition in 1899 from Francisca (Chiquinha) Gonzaga called "Ó Abre-Alas", made for the carnival group Rosa de Ouro. It was the first time that a song was written especially for the carnival celebration. Since that moment the "marcha" became more and more a fundamental part of carnival. The real "marchinha de carnaval" became popular in Rio de Janeiro with the compositions of Eduardo Souto, Freire Júnior e Sinhô, and reached its peak with interpreters like Carmen Miranda, Almirante, Mário Reis, Dalva de Oliveira, Silvio Caldas, Jorge Veiga e Blecaute, who interpreted in the middle of the twentieth century the compositions of João de Barro, Braguinha, Alberto Ribeiro, Noel Rosa, Ary Barroso, and Lamartine Babo. The last great composer of the "marchinha" was João Roberto Kelly. The "marchinha de carnaval" stayed in Brazilian carnival from 1920 until 1960 when it was substituted by the samba-enredo.

The origin of the "marcha" were the popular Portuguese marches and militar marches from the United States. With them they share binary meter. But "marchas" are quicker, have simple and vivid melodies, and spicy lyrics full of double meaning.

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